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Sim, algo aconteceu! You're already a sleuth! Tem He does literally here He has - notice that we don't even need a sim. You should reread this Brain-Drilling after you've completed the lesson, and at that time we'll see how slick your skills really are. You'd like to leave someone with the impression that you know what you're talking about, but the exact numbers and figures are too vague in your head.

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This section will give you a few tricks to keep up your sleeves in those tight situations. These nouns and adjectives are simply a way of grouping or simplifying an idea, but often carry the side-effect of mystery or ambiguity. If I ask, " is anyone here? Here are the basic Portuguese with their English equivalents:. Gente f. Notice how todo all changes to the feminine toda to reflect the gender of the noun. That's because it is an adjective.

These words do, however, follow the nice pattern of their relative, um uma, uns, umas a, an, one. The longer phrases will work best in situations where you're asking about a specific quantity or material substance. The plurals, nenhumas coisas and algumas coisas , start to sound a little specific and aren't as common, like some things.

Algo and nada , like everything and nothing , don't have plural forms.

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Please do not feel overwhelmed by the chart! These are useful words that are introducing themselves to you. They're great little words. Take advantage of them, using as many as possible wherever you see fit! Unlike formal English which constantly corrects us for making the error , you may negate to your heart's most fantastic desires.

He doesn't do anything! Just accept this, practice it, and, I assure you, it will flow smoothly in no time. But we've only learned the most basic of pronouns I, you, he, she, it, we, and they. In Portuguese, it would be easier to avoid these nasty little words forever, but have no fear.

We'll get through them together. We will look at a new type of pronoun in this section: reflexive pronouns. Reflexives are relatively easy to handle for an English speaker. We use them when the pronoun both gives and receives the action.

Two New Verb Categories

They are the -self words for example, I wash myself. Charts may look nice and neat, but they don't tell the whole story. Let's see these words in action.

Se depois de eu morrer

This is sensible, since washing your hands is something you do to yourself what we call a reflexive action! You may be thinking to yourself: why, why do they complicate the language? I'm finally understanding these -ar , -er and -ir verbs in the present! The intention is to make your life easier!

These verbs tell you right away that whatever it is you're trying to say in Portuguese needs one of these reflexive pronouns. We call them reflexive verbs, even if the same verb can be used without a reflexive pronoun. Lavar-se to wash oneself is a reflexive verb because of the reflexive pronoun. The verb is still an -ar verb, with the same endings as any other -ar verb, the same endings as lavar to wash. It's chamar-se. Chamar means to call on the telefone m. We can translate chamar-se as to call oneself , but we usually use it to ask for or give a person's nome m.

Eu me chamo means I call myself or my name is. Como se chama? What's you're name or How do you call yourself? In Brazil , we really like to keep those pronouns before the verb me lavo rather than lavo-me , because those hyphens and attached pronouns get a little messy. We will, of course, see them in the written language, especially in older or in more formal documents, but words like lavar-se stay in a dictionary.

In context that is, outside of a dictionary , Brazilians prefer something like para se lavar to wash up, for washing up, in order to wash oneself or even ele quer se chamar The Portuguese living in Portugal still say lavo-me whenever they can. There is a general rule in the dialect of Portugal that these pronouns can't stand at the beginning of a sentence, so we have to say Lavo-me.


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Can we get around this rule? Try using the pronouns you've already come to know well: I, you, he, she, it, we, and they.

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If I say Eu me lavo for I wash myself , you can't fault me anymore! Still, realize that I am now stressing the pronoun I over everything else. This is sometimes called the passive voice since the verb action has no true active origin. All of the reflexives assume a subject me myself , nos ourselves , right? Well, that's not the case.

Depois de eu morrer

There is a very general reflexive pronoun we can use to complete this task. That word is se himself, herself, itself, yourself, themselves, yourselves , any other unknown -self or -selves Os cachorros se lavam The dogs are being hosed down well, washed at least. As coisas s e fazem Things are being done. What are we really saying here? Try to wrap your mind around it: The work does itself in the garage. The clothing already washes itself.

The dogs wash themselves. The things do themselves. It works, and this way of implying that an action has no specific origin might even strike you as a novel concept. It's been around in Portuguese and many of the other Romance languages for quite some time now. But that doesn't sound like a real passive, does it? Since there is a grammatical subject the work, the clothing, the dogs, the things , we don't call the se verbs "true passives ".

A passive has no real subject, no origin. It is a loner, coming from nowhere and ending up who knows where. This "real passive" isn't present in Portuguese or English, but we can get very close by doing the same thing in both languages: turn the sentence around and stick in the verb be am, is or are. The Portuguese verb is, of course, ser to be the "default" be ; remember that estar also means be in temporary situations. If I have a sentence like the man washes the dog , but I wish to eliminate the subject, leaving no trace of its role in the sentence, I turn the whole thing around.

The dog is my subject.


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The action is still wash , but it needs to be done to the dog , not by the dog. I've got it: the dog is washed! Let's do the same thing in Portuguese. But, wait, we don't know how to say washed. This is called a past participle.